In 2004, the mineral extraction sector accounted for 32% of Kazakhstan's GDP.
Kazakhstan's classification system for resources and reserves quite different from recognized international systems such as Australia's JORC Code and N1 43-101. Kazakhstan still uses the former Soviet system which categorizes minerals according to which they have been explored and substantiated (A, B, C1, C2 and P1, P2, P3) on an economic value basis: e.g. "balance reserves" (commercial reserves) and "off balance" (lacking commercial potential). Reserves are subject to approval by the State Reserves Commission without which extraction cannot be started.
Law on Subsoil and Subsoil Use (no. 2828) (1996)
Kazakhstan has a civil law system, similar to other CIS countries, with its foundation in the Constitution. Numerous applicable codes, laws and regulations, include: Civil Code, Tax Code, Land Code, Environmental Code, Competition Law, National Security Law, Investment Law, various Edicts, Resolutions, Decrees, Orders , New Tax Code (2009), new Mineral Extraction Tax - replaced royalties, increased tax burden on extractive sectors (tax base, rates).