Canada is the world's largest exporter of minerals and metals.
There is no one "Canadian Mining Law". Mining is largely provincial and territorial jurisdiction, so there are effectively 13 different laws. Coal, uranium, and quarries all have separate and different laws from metal mining.
Canada's legal structure relies on four kinds of law: criminal law, constitutional law, administrative law, and civil law.
Aboriginal rights and title issues are part of the constitutional law of Canada, and are found in specific Supreme Court decisions: Delgamuukw, Sparrow, the Haida/Taku case. These cases restrict the rights of the Crown and mining companies on traditional Indigenous lands, and assign a "fiduciary responsibility" to the Crown to protect the rights and interests of Aboriginal people.